adj. 民族的，有民族特色的 /'eθnɪk/
n. 法庭律师, 律师 /'bærɪstə(r)/
n. 赞美, 表扬, 推崇 /'ækəleɪd/
n. 辫子,穗带 /breɪd/
v. 生染, 使根深蒂固 /'ɪn'greɪn/
adj. 不新鲜的, 陈腐的 /steɪl/
A desire to fit in prompts employees to ‘whiten’ for work
（757 words） By Layli Foroudi ----------------------------------------------------- When Shafa started his first legal internship at the International Criminal Court he hesitated while introducing himself to his boss. “I remember saying: ‘Hi, my name is Sh — Lawrence’,” says the 29-year-old lawyer. His parents had given him the name Lawrence at birth but until that internship, he says, no one had ever really used it. “Growing up, at school and university, everybody knew me as Shafa,” he says. “But I always thought, if I’m going into the legal world, I will call myself Lawrence.” He says he did not want an “ethnic name” which might worsen his chances in the competitive process to becoming a barrister, and he felt it would simplify life at work. Lawrence “sounds more professional and even [with] trivial silly things, like email addresses, you don’t have to spell it”. Researchers at the University of Toronto and Stanford University have studied the phenomenon they call professional “whitening”. Last year they published a paper, which found that black and Asian students were whitening their CVs in order to increase their chances of being asked to an interview. Through conversations with 59 students, they found that 36 per cent of participants had whitened their CV — by swapping a foreign-sounding name for a “more American” one, omitting race-specific accolades or including stereotypically white hobbies like hiking and kayaking. A further two-thirds of interviewees had relatives or friends who had made similar alterations. Such practices do not end at the interview stage. They continue in the workplace, too. Sonia Kang, the lead researcher on the study and a professor at the University of Toronto, thinks that the reasons for whitening in the workplace are similar. “The motivation is to avoid discrimination,” she says. “You want people to accept you; you’re changing your name because you think that people will see you as an outsider.” Jazmine Scott, a software analyst in the US city of Minneapolis, has altered her appearance to avoid unwelcome attention. In her first job, at a credit union, a colleague kept touching her braided hair, she says. “She had a whole conversation [while] grabbing my hair. When someone does something like that, what do you do? You notice the things that other people from other cultures notice about you and you try to tone them down as much as possible.” From then on, she avoided styling her hair in braids. Ms Scott, 26, has been the only person of colour in every department she has worked in and says whitening is “just something that is ingrained in you. It’s subconscious.” Whitening need not only be about disguising ethnicity. Tunde Okewale is a barrister at London’s Doughty Chambers. In his work helping young people from less-privileged backgrounds succeed in the legal profession, he has noticed people putting on accents and acting differently to fit in. “You still have the fear that [the legal world] is stale, male, pale and middle-class,” he says. “If you don’t tick any of those boxes, you might have certain ideas about what is expected of you and that may influence your behaviour, whether consciously or unconsciously.” Mr Okewale says it is necessary to conform to the industry’s idea of professional conduct and learn the norms of a workplace. But “that is slightly different from putting on a posh accent and pretending to be someone you’re not,” he says. You Make It is a project in London that helps young unemployed women develop their careers. While it offers public speaking training, founder Asma Shah rejects the idea that women should change their accents. “One of the things that I’m really keen to do with this programme is not to get women thinking that they have to talk like middle-class posh people,” she says. “We encourage women to talk with confidence and power, in their own voices: Have pride in your background. Don’t feel you have to rid yourself of your class identity.” Prof Kang’s study also found students who are against whitening because they feel it erases parts of their identities. As one student put it: “If blackness puts a shadow over [my CV] then it probably isn’t the job I want to be in”. Melody Patry, advocacy director at Access Now, a digital rights organisation, is determined not to tone down her black identity. “It’s me. It’s my personality. It’s who I am,” says Ms Patry, who is French and has been based in London for nearly five years. “When I’ve had TV interviews, or speak at the European Commission, I make a point to have my [hair in] full afro mode because representation matters. I’m aware of the message it sends, especially to younger people.”
How did Shafa whiten himself when he started his first legal internship？
He included some stereotypically white hobbies on his resume.
He changed his ethnic name and gave himself a white name.
He used a common English name instead of his ethnic name.
He omitted to spell his ethnic name in email to avoid attention.
Why did Jazmine Scott alter her hairstyle ?
To make herself look more American on the interview.
To increase her chances of being asked to an interview.
To show respect to her colleagues from other cultures.
To avoid unpleasant physical contact from her colleague.
Mr Okewale noticed young people from less-privileged backgrounds tend to ____ in the the legal world ?
Omitting race-specific accolades in their CVs.
Swapping a foreign name for an American one.
Putting on a posh accent and acting differently.
Altering their appearance to avoid discrimination.
The founder of You Make It believes ____.
People can't hide his culture background and class identity.
It's no use trying to behave like middle-class posh people.
People should have confidence in their social background.
It is necessary to learn the norms of professional conduct.
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2. 不要把一个个单词分开看，要学会整体把握一个语义群。比如“an emergency $180bn injection of dollar”是一个语义群，应该整体地去理解它
3. 在看英文影视剧的时候，切换到英文字幕。4. 保持这份认真的态度，坚持英语学习，你将会获得很大的提高。
2. 加强对英文的数字写法，尤其是大数量的数字(million, billion)的识别与中英文转换的练习。