n. 匿名, 假名 /'suːdənɪm/
adj. 干脆的，精力充沛的 /'snæpi/
vt./vi. 沉思,考虑 /'pɒndə(r)/
n. 轰动，狂热 /fju'rɔːri/
adj. 有恶意的, 恶毒的 /mə'levələnt/
n. 填补物，感叹词，咒骂语 /ɪk'spliːtɪv/
Why the alt-right is winning America’s meme war
（702 words） By Gillian Tett ----------------------------------------------------- Almost a decade ago, Matt Goerzen, a Canadian artist and social scientist, stumbled into the world of subversive internet chatrooms. He was fascinated — and alarmed. Goerzen could see that the anonymity of the internet was enabling a virulently angry, anti-establishment community to emerge on platforms such as “4chan”, where users post under pseudonyms with little or no moderation. And while these groups did not initially seem very political (the message boards were notorious instead for puerile humour and pornography), as the years passed they became infused with an “alt-right” agenda — that of the white nationalist movement. They also became adept at launching online attacks on their opponents, or “trolling”. The artist in Goerzen observed something else: what made the alt-right so influential was that the users were not just using words to communicate their messages, but snappy visual images too. Both 4chan and 8chan, a similar platform, were originally created as “image boards”, focused on pictures rather than text — a format first created in Japan, where they were used to share manga and anime. Alt-right users had become adept at creating visual “memes”, to use the phrase coined by Richard Dawkins, the evolutionary biologist, back in the 1970s, to describe a “unit of cultural transmission” that spread from “mind to mind”. “These [white nationalists] are a small group of people,” explains Goerzen, who now works as a researcher at a New York-based project called Data and Society, which studies modern cyberculture and media. “But these groups can deliver an outsized impact because of their ability to push the right buttons to bait the media.” Those memes, in other words, have wings. It is an important point to ponder, particularly given the furore this month in Washington around racist imagery, and the degree to which malevolent political forces have been using social media to discredit and delegitimise political debate. When reports emerged that President Donald Trump had used the word “shithole” to describe countries such as Haiti or Nigeria, mainstream observers were understandably appalled. But many alt-right message groups were thrilled. “Shithole” is a tag that has circulated in these message groups for a long time, giving birth to a range of memes. “Ha, CNN is actually saying shithole,” crowed one commenter on 4chan. Another participant said, amid a stream of cartoons and messages on the subject: “Who wants to colour in the world in five shades of brown?” To be fair, there is no evidence that Trump has visited sites such as 4chan. However, the images created on 4chan and the more extreme 8chan have been seeping into social media and news publications. During the presidential campaign, Trump shared an image on Twitter of Hillary Clinton, with the phrase “Most corrupt candidate ever!” in a red six-pointed star. The image, with its anti-Semitic overtones, was discovered to have been previously featured on 8chan. Doubtless many FT readers would like the most extreme of these sites to be shut down. But it would be naive to think you can stop this trend simply by banning platforms. The alt-right has swelled in power by presenting itself as a victim of elitist attacks, and the memes are so potent precisely because they are designed to be subversive and to bait their opponents into a reaction. Indeed, what is going on here is a classic example of the type of “network” effect described by Niall Ferguson, the British historian, in his 2017 book The Square and the Tower: people are congregating online to challenge hierarchies, using the power of the (cyber) crowd against the elite. This fight is not just about ideas, but communication styles too. Five centuries ago, Martin Luther upended the power of the Roman Catholic Church by using vernacular speech to undercut priestly Latin. Today, alt-right trolls are using memes to overturn mainstream ideas about political communication. The urgent question is whether there is any way for people to counter alt-right memes. After all, as Goerzen points out, one of the great oddities of our cyber age is that the leftwing of American politics has hitherto been ineffective at using this visual language. There have been attempts to fight back. Liberal voices have created a few popular hashtags, such as #blacklivesmatter or #metoo. And last year a “left accelerationist” group of artists and activists called “Alt-Woke” appeared in cyberspace; they hope to beat the alt-right at its own game. But it remains to be seen whether these counter-attacks will pack any punch — not least because one problem that haunts leftwing groups is that they seem reluctant to use the same aggressive “trolling” tactics employed by the right. Either way, the next time you hear the word “shithole”, consider how quickly that particular meme spread. Yes, the topic and image may make us wince; but this is a political trend that no voter can afford to ignore, least of all on the left. Particularly as the 2018 mid-term elections draw near.
What is 4chan according to the article ?
An imageboard website for right-wing artists.
A discussion website for alt-right groups.
An anti-establishment online political group.
A message boards filled with puerile humour.
Which of the following statements about the memes is true ?
Memes have helped the alt-right greatly to extend their political influence.
Memes were created by Japanese to share their political opinions online.
Both 4chan and 8chan were originally created to share alt-right memes.
Memes have became a symbol of alt-right white nationalists in American.
How do alt-right memes change the way political communication influences people?
They upend the power of the leftwing by using simple vernacular words.
They successfully picture the alt-right groups as the victims of elitist attacks.
They spread the alt-right culture in a more intuitive way via visual language.
They take advantage of the power of cyber crowd to challenge the elite.
What is the main purpose of the passage?
To present her key findings on the new trend of political communication.
To urge the government to shunt down extreme alt-right image boards.
To alert the voters to the dangers of alt-right messages and memes online.
To urge the leftwing to take the new political trend seriously and adopt it.
© The Financial Times Ltd 2018
and 'Financial Times' are trademarks of The Financial Times Ltd.
2. 不要把一个个单词分开看，要学会整体把握一个语义群。比如“an emergency $180bn injection of dollar”是一个语义群，应该整体地去理解它
3. 在看英文影视剧的时候，切换到英文字幕。4. 保持这份认真的态度，坚持英语学习，你将会获得很大的提高。
2. 加强对英文的数字写法，尤其是大数量的数字(million, billion)的识别与中英文转换的练习。