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欧洲

NAKED AMBITION
“堕落”的意大利女权(三)

广告业内人士指出,意大利男高管往往要求把他们的产品与天真单纯的美丽形象相联系,难怪意大利的美女广告铺天盖地。

Pain and suffering, motherhood and pasta, shuttered banks. It is easy to see how they could be linked to a lack of senior workplace representation. There also seems to be a simple link between the dominance of men at work and the portrayal of women in advertising. Daniela Barrera, planning and research director at Leo Burnett Italy, used to work in the UK. She says: “Half our clients in senior positions in the UK were women. Most are men in Italy.”

痛苦与折磨,母亲责任与意大利面,早早关门的银行。很容易发现,这些与缺乏高级职位的女性有关。男性在工作场所的主导地位,与广告中对女性的刻画似乎也存在一种简单联系。Leo Burnett Italy的规划与研究主管丹妮拉•巴雷拉(Daniela Barrera)曾在英国工作过。她表示:“在英国,我们拥有高级职位的客户一半是女性。而在意大利,多数都是男性。”

Male clients of advertising agencies tend, she believes, to ask for campaigns in which their products are equated with a superficial, unsophisticated form of beauty. Her colleague Rodriguez says: “A man thinks of his brand as a woman.” Barrera jokes: “If you have no idea [for a campaign], you can use a pair of tits, a baby or a puppy.” If that approach did not work with the public, there would be complaints. But there are none, the advertising executives say.

美女广告“百试不爽”

With few women in parliament, one source of lobbying for reforms that would encourage women to work is absent. Bonino says: “Because we are less vocal and determined, we do not have structural reforms in areas such as schools and services.”

她认为,广告公司的男性客户往往要求,他们的产品要与一种天真单纯的美丽形象划上等号。她的同事罗德里格斯(Rodriguez)表示:“男人把他的品牌视同为女人。”巴雷拉开玩笑说。“如果你(对一条广告)没有创意,你可以使用一对乳房、一个宝宝或是一只小狗。”如果这种方法对公众不起作用,那么就会有抱怨。但广告业高管表示,这招百试不爽。

Women certainly seemed to be silent while Silvio Berlusconi's commercial television stations rose to the fore in the 1980s. Berlusconi, the former prime minister and Italy's richest man, found success with a programming formula that included liberal use of the female form. Italy's state-controlled channels soon dropped their previous aversion to exposed flesh in the battle for ratings.

“Television is still in the hands of men,” says Parati at Dartmouth College. “This recreates the illusion of how women can be subjugated and is reassuring… Berlusconi has not created the situation but he has made it bigger.”

Striscia La Notizia (“The News Slithers”), a satirical news programme, is one of the most popular shows on Canale 5, one of Berlusconi's channels. It goes out six nights a week at 8.30pm presented by two men but regularly interrupted by two gyrating and minimally dressed women. Competitions to replace the two female dancers are deemed newsworthy in their own right.

意大利议会里的女性寥寥无几,这意味着推动改革,以鼓励女性工作的游说渠道。博尼诺表示:“因为我们的声音不够响亮和坚决,我们尚未得到学校和服务等领域的结构改革。”

The show is just one example of the astonishingly restricted use of women on Italian television. A study last year of almost 600 television shows on the largest channels by Censis, an Italian research institute, showed that women mostly appeared as actors, singers and models. “The most common image seemed to be that of women in light entertainment,” Censis said. When women were present as experts, they tended to be talking about astrology or handicrafts. Professional or political women were extremely rare.

“Beautiful, glossy and most importantly young,” said Censis. “The images of women are split between light entertainment and those of violence in bad news stories. There is a distortion compared with the real female world: old women are invisible, the socioeconomic status of women [portrayed] is middle-upper class … meanwhile there are never any disabled women.”

贝卢斯科尼的“成功”节目公式

(to be continued)

上世纪80年代,西尔维奥•贝卢斯科尼(Silvio Berlusconi)的商业电视台变得家喻户晓时,女性显然保持着沉默。意大利前总理兼首富贝卢斯科尼的“成功”节目公式,包含着对女性形体的大量利用。在收视率争夺战中,国家控制的频道也很快抛弃了此前对裸露肌肤的反感。

Adrian Michaels is the FT's Milan correspondent

“电视仍然掌握在男人手中,”达特茅斯大学的帕拉蒂表示。“这重新建立了女性可以被驯服的假象,让男人们松了口气……贝卢斯科尼并没有制造这种局面,但他加剧了这种情况。”

讽刺类新闻节目“Striscia La Notizia”(新闻滑动)是贝卢斯科尼旗下电视频道——5频道(Canale 5)最受欢迎的节目之一。一周六天,每天晚上8时30分播出,主持人是两位男性,但不时被两个不停旋转、衣着暴露的女性打断。替换这两位舞女的竞争本身,就被视为具有新闻价值。

这个节目只是女性在意大利电视上能够扮演的角色出奇有限的一个例子而已。去年,意大利研究机构Censis对大型频道播出的近600个电视节目进行的研究显示,女性大多以演员、歌手和模特的身份出现。Censis指出:“看来女性最常见的形象是在轻松的娱乐节目中。”当女性作为专家身份出现时,往往谈论的是占星学或手工艺。职业女性或政界女性极其罕见。

Censis指出:“美丽、光鲜、最重要是年轻。女性形象要么是在轻松的娱乐节目中,要么就是在那些不良新闻故事的暴力情节中。与真实的女性世界相比,存在着一种歪曲:看不见老女人,(媒体描绘的)女性社会经济地位始终是中上层……同时,永远不会有任何残疾女性。”

(待续)

阿德里安•迈克尔斯是英国《金融时报》驻米兰记者

译者/何黎

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