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香港回归20周年

Hong Kong since the handover in charts
图解香港回归中国20年来之变化

香港回归20年来经历了无数变化,有很多新的机遇和问题。它在中国经济中的重要性大不如前,却比任何时候都更加依赖内地。

Saturday marks 20 years since Hong Kong was returned to China by Britain. In that time, the city of 7m people has changed in countless ways, with many new opportunities and problems. The disruptions riling Hong Kong underline just how much China is changing the world.

周六是香港回归20周年纪念日。在这20年里,这个拥有700万人口的城市经历了无数变化,面临很多新的机遇和问题。香港的种种风云变幻突显出中国给世界带来了多么大的改变。

China’s breakneck growth since the handover in 1997 means Hong Kong today is much less significant to Beijing in relative economic terms. In 1997, China needed Hong Kong as a port, aviation hub and centre for foreign investment. Today the ports of Shanghai, Ningbo and Shenzhen all ship more containers than Hong Kong.

International investors who want to understand Chinese business and consumer trends are more likely to be stationed in Shanghai or Beijing. Hong Kong’s annual gross domestic product is now similar to that of neighbouring cities Shenzhen and Guangzhou.

自1997年英国将香港主权移交中国以来,中国内地经济飞速增长,从相对经济规模来看,香港现在对于内地的重要性已大不如前。1997年,香港作为港口、航空枢纽和外商投资中心为中国所需要。如今,上海、宁波和深圳的港口集装箱吞吐量都超过了香港。

Since the handover, trade with China has jumped from just over a third of Hong Kong’s total imports and exports to more than half.

希望了解中国商业和消费趋势的国际投资者更有可能驻留上海或北京。现在,香港的年度地区生产总值(GDP)与邻近城市深圳和广州相当。

Hong Kong’s location and status as a tariff-free port mean it is still able to capitalise on the rapid growth of China as an exporter of manufactured goods and an importer of consumer goods and industrial machinery, even if the rate of growth has been dwarfed by that on the mainland.

The flipside is that Hong Kong’s economy is more reliant on the mainland than it has ever been, at a time when growth in China has slowed and financial risks increased.

自香港回归以来,对中国内地的贸易占香港进出口总额的比例从略高于三分之一飙升至一半以上。

Sky-high house prices are a major complaint in Hong Kong, which has the world’s least affordable housing relative to income, according to US consultancy Demographia. The median house price is equivalent to 18 years of gross household income, presuming no tax or other living expenses.

香港的地理位置及其作为免关税港口的地位意味着,香港仍能作为制造业产品出口地以及消费品和工业机械进口地,利用中国内地经济的快速增长,尽管其增速没法跟内地相比。

The result is that many Hong Kongers live on top of each other in tiny apartments. Some 200,000 can only afford to live in sub-divided homes, which are comprised of flats and industrial units partitioned into miserable quarters with a median area of just 10 square metres. 

另一方面,在内地经济增速放缓和金融风险上升之际,香港经济比以往任何时候都更加依赖内地。

As opportunities in China’s property market have thinned, heavily indebted mainland developers have pushed up land prices in Hong Kong government auctions to record highs. Chinese companies, which want to reduce their exposure to the slowing mainland economy and diversify their currency risk, acquired all the land sold by the government in the year to the end of May.

在香港,高房价是人们抱怨最多的一大问题,根据美国咨询机构Demographia的数字,香港的房价收入比是全球最高的。不计入税赋或其他生活开销,香港房价中值是家庭年收入的18倍。

Hong Kong tycoons such as Li Ka-shing and Lui Che-woo, who have long been boosters of the property market, have stayed on the sidelines for fear of a bubble. Hong Kong democracy activists worry about the impact on future housing prices and their way of life because of what they call “red capital”.

As the economic and political problems have spiralled in Hong Kong, a growing number of young people are rejecting a Chinese identity they see as dominated by the Communist party in favour of a separate Hong Kong identity.

结果是,很多香港人蜗居在小小的公寓中。约20万人只能生活在隔断房里,这些房子是把公寓和厂房分隔成小得可怜的空间,每户面积中值仅为10平方米。

Just 3 per cent of Hong Kongers aged between 18 and 29 described themselves as broadly “Chinese” in a recent opinion poll by the University of Hong Kong — the lowest since the handover.

Growing tensions between China and Hong Kong have politicised the generation that has come of age since 1997. That means youth apathy is less of an issue here than elsewhere. But it is a big worry for Beijing, which is fearful of the threat of separatism, from Tibet to Hong Kong.

随着内地房地产市场的机会减少,负债沉重的内地开发商在香港政府举行的土地拍卖中将香港地价推升至创纪录高位。今年初至5月底,面对内地经济放缓有意收缩内地投资、并希望分散汇率风险的内地企业,买下了港府拍卖的所有地块。

Eighteen times more mainland tourists came to Hong Kong last year than in 1997. The surge is partly the result of the rapid expansion in demand for outbound travel by the Chinese middle class and partly the result of moves by Beijing to make it easier for mainlanders to visit Hong Kong, which were implemented after the Sars outbreak in 2003 to help revive the local economy. 

李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)和吕志和(Lui Che-woo)等香港大亨正离场观望,担心有泡沫。长期以来,他们一直是香港楼市的推动者。香港民主活动人士担心,由于他们所称的“红色资本”的冲击,香港未来房价以及他们的生活方式会受到影响。

The inflow has created social pressures and prompted a backlash from some Hong Kongers unhappy about overcrowding on public transport and runs on baby milk following a safety scandal on the mainland. Feeling increasingly unwelcome in Hong Kong, and becoming more adventurous about global travel, the number of Chinese tourists coming to the city has recently started to drop.

随着香港的经济和政治问题不断加剧,越来越多的年轻人拒绝认同他们认为受制于共产党的中国人身份,而是倾向于独立的香港人身份。

香港大学(University of Hong Kong)最近组织的民调显示,在18岁至29岁的香港年轻人中,只有3%的人认为自己是广义上的“中国人”,这个比例为香港回归以来最低。

内地与香港之间不断加剧的紧张关系,让在1997年后步入成年的一代人充满政治意识。这意味着,在香港,年轻人不关心政治的问题不像其他地区那么严重。但这让北京方面颇为担忧,北京方面担心从西藏到香港的分裂主义的威胁。

去年,到香港旅游的内地游客数量是1997年的18倍。这在一定程度上是因为内地中产阶级对出境游的需求快速上升,还因为北京方面采取了措施,让内地人到香港旅游变得更容易,这些措施是2003年“非典”疫情爆发后为了帮助香港经济复苏而实施的。

内地人的流入造成了社会压力,也引起了一些香港人的反弹,他们对公共交通变得过度拥挤、内地发生一起食品安全丑闻后内地人赴港抢购婴幼儿奶粉感到不满。由于内地人自感在香港越来越不受欢迎,同时也变得更敢于到世界各地旅游,赴港内地游客数量最近开始减少。

译者/梁艳裳

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