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教育

Lucy Kellaway grills the world’s ‘best teacher’
露西•凯拉韦与“全球最佳教师”共进午餐

2018年“全球最佳教师”奖得主扎菲拉库认为应该向中国学习重视教师。她打算用100万美元奖金把艺术家、设计师、音乐家、演员带进学校。

Andria Zafirakou doesn’t do lunch. Instead, she stands in a playground at Alperton Community School in north London, where she has been an art teacher for 12 years, eating a sandwich and discouraging 1,400 pupils from doing anything nasty to each other.

安德里亚•扎菲拉库(Andria Zafirakou)不正经吃午饭,而是站在伦敦北部阿尔珀顿社区学校(Alperton Community School)的操场上,一边啃着三明治一边盯着1400名学生,防止他们调皮。她已经在这所学校当了12年美术老师。

I don’t do lunch for a similar reason — because in my new career as a maths teacher, I’m either on duty in another playground in east London or scrabbling to prepare for my next lesson.

我不正经吃午饭的理由跟这差不多——因为刚成为一名数学老师的我,午餐时间要么在伦敦东部的另一个操场上值班,要么在玩命准备下堂课。

So we meet on a Saturday at the Langham Hotel in central London, which she has chosen because afternoon tea is her favourite meal, and there you can have it for lunch. But when I ring to book, half of London appears to want pastries at midday and the place is full. I call the press office and explain that I’m meeting the woman who has been crowned the best teacher in the world, winning a $1m prize paid for by the philanthropist Sunny Varkey and endorsed by Bill Clinton and Bill Gates. Magically, there is a table after all.

所以我们某个周六约在伦敦市中心的朗廷酒店(Langham Hotel)会面,因为她最爱下午茶,而且在那你可以把下午茶当午饭。但当我打电话预订时,一半的伦敦人似乎都想在中午吃点心,位子已经订满了。我打电话给酒店的新闻办,解释说,我要见的这位女士曾荣获全球最佳教师称号,并获得了由慈善家桑尼•瓦尔基(Sunny Varkey)支付、比尔•克林顿(Bill Clinton)及比尔•盖茨(Bill Gates)赞助的100万美元奖金。于是我奇迹般地订到了位子。

Across the marble court where a piano tinkles comes a dark-haired woman in her late thirties. I extend a hand but she enfolds me in a hug before settling comfortably into a cream leather armchair. I tell her that she is now famous enough to command a table in a fully booked restaurant.

一位30大几的黑发女性穿过有人在弹奏钢琴的大理石中庭向我走来。我向她伸出手,她却给我一个拥抱,然后舒舒服服地坐进奶油色的真皮扶手椅。我告诉她,她已经出名到能让一家客满的餐厅为她匀出一张桌子了。

“Wow! Really?” she beams. “Wow. I mean, wow.”

“哇!真的吗?”她顿时眉开眼笑,“哇。我想说,哇。”

A waiter in a pastel suit asks how we are. “Good, really good!” says the best teacher in the world, turning her smile on him and returning the question. “I am just like you,” he replies. “Good. Very good.”

一名身着淡色西装的侍者问我们感觉如何。“不错,真不错!”这位全球最佳教师回答,她边对侍者报以微笑,边反问对方。“跟您一样,”他回答道,“我很好。非常好。”

I, on the other hand, am a bit anxious. I have been longing to have an audience with Zafirakou since she won the prize in March, but have had to wait my turn while Theresa May, the prime ministers of Greece and Cyprus and the global educational establishment got in first.

而此时的我则有点焦急。自从3月份扎菲拉库获奖以来,我一直盼着能有机会见见她,但不得不排到特里萨•梅(Theresa May)、希腊总理、塞浦路斯总统和全球教育届的大人物之后。

In my notebook I have a list of questions that have been increasingly bothering me since I joined the profession last September. What does it mean to be a good teacher? Does the job have to be this knackering? Why is education so political and polarised, with the new traditionalist and the more creative schools despising each other? And, most important, what is education for?

我的笔记本上记着我自去年9月入行以来越发觉得困惑的一些问题。怎么才算好老师?做老师非得这么累死累活吗?为什么教育如此政治化及两极分化,新传统主义学校和更具创新精神的学校为什么互相鄙视?还有最重要的一个问题,教育的目的是什么?

But first I ask her if she’d like a glass of champagne with her tea. “Oh, God. Yes. That’s not a hard decision.”

但我最先问她的是,要不要来杯佐茶香槟。“哦,天哪。要。当然要。”

We order the basic afternoon tea (which comes at a not especially basic price of £55 each) but fail to choose between the 44 teas on offer and delegate the task to the waiter.

我们点了下午茶基本套餐(价钱可不太“基本”,每位55英镑),但却在44种茶品中举棋不定,最后还是让侍者替我们拿了主意。

If Zafirakou is looking paler than the radiant woman I’ve just watched on YouTube accepting the prize in a storm of golden confetti, it’s no surprise. As well as being the best teacher, she must now be the busiest: on top of the day job she has the additional responsibility of endlessly saying how marvellous it is to be a teacher.

要说扎菲拉库看起来不如我刚刚在YouTube上看到的那个在金灿灿的彩纸屑中获奖的女人那么容光焕发,也不足为奇。除了是最佳教师,她现在肯定也是最忙教师:在日常工作之外,她还有一个任务,就是不停地说当一名老师有多棒。

“Look,” she says. “I have been given this incredible platform. I’m changing the world! Varkey genuinely believes teaching is the most important job there is. He said: ‘I want you to be part of the Oscars.’ It’s crazy. Crazy.”

“你看,”她说,“我有这么一个了不起的平台,我正在改变世界!瓦尔基真心相信教书是最重要的工作。他说:‘我想让你成为奥斯卡的一部分。’这太疯狂了。太疯狂了。”

Her outpouring is interrupted by the return of our waiter bearing two low stools on which he places our handbags.

我们的侍者拿来两张矮凳,把我们的手提包放在上面,打断了她滔滔不绝的讲话。

Having set up a charity to persuade status-conscious bankers, lawyers and diplomats to start again in the classroom, I’m all for anything that makes a fuss of teachers. Yet I’m worried about the prize. I doubt if my colleagues would agree on who is the best teacher in just one school, so how is it possible to declare one person the best in the world?

我成立了一个慈善机构,以说服在意地位的银行家、律师和外交官们登上讲台、开启另一份职业,因此我绝对支持任何能抬高教师地位的事。但我对这个奖项心存疑虑。我不确定我的同事们是否会同意哪个老师是仅仅一所学校里最棒的,又怎么可能宣布谁是全世界最好的老师呢?

“Well, I’m obviously not the best,” she says. “I’m just lucky that I was nominated — by someone who I worked with years ago. There are better teachers than me; I work with some of them.”

“嗯,我显然不是最好的,”她说,“我只是很幸运地获得了提名——我多年前共事过的一个人提名了我。有比我好的老师;我的同事里就有一些比我好。”

She contemplates the dainty finger sandwiches that have been placed in front of us and takes a bite of the smoked salmon one.

她看着我们面前精致的手指三明治,拿起熏鲑鱼口味的那个咬了一口。

She tells me how she very nearly disqualified herself by failing to fill out the form she’d been sent. It was only at the eleventh hour, while simultaneously hemming the trousers of the man she was due to marry the following day (a personal trainer who is the father of her two young daughters) that she got around to the task. Two Skype calls later, she found herself whisked out of her playground in Brent into the glitz of Dubai, where she proceeded to beat 33,000 others from 173 countries.

她告诉我,她差点因为没填发给她的一张表格而失去参选资格。直到截止前最后一刻,她才腾出空,一边给她第二天要嫁的男人(一位私人教练,她两个小女儿的父亲)缝裤边,一边把表格填了。两通Skype电话后,她发现自己从伦敦布伦特区的操场飞到了浮华的迪拜,在那里她击败了来自173个国家的33000名教师。

But now, months later, I wonder if the charm is fading. If I’d won the prize, I’d feel mocked by it every time I gave a dud lesson. “Lucy, I’ve been doing this job for 12 years. So I know the children will always learn something in every lesson and that one child will blow my mind. They run to my classroom and they complain that you’re late even though it’s still break time!”

而现在,几个月过去了,我想知道这个奖的魅力是不是有所减退。如果我得了这个奖,我每上一堂无聊的课都会觉得它在嘲弄我。“露西(Lucy),我教书12年了。所以我知道孩子们每堂课上都会学到一些东西,某个孩子会让我大吃一惊。他们跑进我的教室,抱怨着你迟到了,尽管现在仍是休息时间!”

This description is not chiming with my own experience. I ask if it’s different in maths, but it turns out it isn’t: “At my school, children love maths.”

她的描述与我的经历不符。我问教数学是不是不一样,但事实证明并非如此:“在我们学校,孩子们喜欢数学。”

As she takes a chicken sandwich, I rummage around in my bag for the school exercise book on which I have written May’s thoughts on teachers: “We have those books!” Zafirakou exclaims, and then, examining my scrawl, demands: “Where’s your margin, date and title?”

当她拿起一个鸡肉三明治时,我从包里翻出学校的练习册,我在上面记着首相梅对教师的看法。“我们也有这些册子!”扎菲拉库惊呼。接着,她检查起我潦草的笔迹,问道:“你的留白、日期和题目呢?”

I read out the three qualities the PM thinks make a good teacher: resilience, ingenuity and a generous heart. Zafirakou nods emphatically. “You can’t fault that,” she says.

我大声读出首相认为一个好老师应具备的三种品质:有韧性、有创造力、还要有包容心。扎菲拉库坚定地点头认同。“那肯定没错。”她说。

But I’m not sure about the generous heart. It is not immediately apparent in some of the maths teachers I admire; neither does it seem to be part of government policy. Nowhere is it mentioned in the eight teaching standards that I had spent the morning trying to find evidence of as part of my teacher training qualification.

对于包容心我有点拿不准。这一点在我敬佩的一些数学老师身上并不是一眼就能看出来;政府政策也没有体现出这一点。我花了一上午的时间研读、试图从中找到印证这一点的证据的八项教学标准没有提及它——研读这个是我教师资格培训的一部分。

“You have to have a generous heart,” she insists. “Even if you are mean to a child who hasn’t done their homework, it’s because you care.”

“你得有包容心,”她坚持这么说,“即便你对一个没完成家庭作业的孩子很苛刻,那也是因为你在乎。”

The size of Zafirakou’s own organ is beyond doubt. She works in a community where child poverty and violent gangs are normal. She has helped set up a Somali choir, started a girls-only cricket team and has learnt “hello” and “goodbye” in 35 languages. She has even taken a child to Asda to buy him a decent uniform and paid out of her own pocket.

要说有包容心,扎菲拉库当之无愧。她任教的那个社区贫困儿童和暴力团伙司空见惯。她帮忙创办了一个索马里合唱团、一支女子板球队,还学会了用35种语言说“你好”和“再见”。她甚至还带一个孩子去阿斯达(Asda)买了身像样的制服,而且是自掏腰包。

Such work deserves an award. Yet as one of the world’s feebler teachers, I feel more awed than motivated by her example. What I want is a role model who will show me how to be better at what I consider the true essence of my job: explaining Pythagoras’s theorem. “But Lucy, it’s your first year! At the moment you’ve got to get your pedagogy right. But ultimately, teaching is not just what happens in the classroom — we are mums, we are mentors, we are psychologists, we are role models.”

这是值得嘉奖的。但作为一个菜鸟老师,对她这样的榜样,我感到敬畏多过于鼓舞。我想要的是一个向我展示怎么更好地做好本职工作的榜样,而我认为我的本职工作就是讲解勾股定理。“不过露西,你刚教书一年!当务之急是要搞对教学方法。但说到底,教育并不仅仅发生在课堂上——我们是母亲、导师、心理学家和榜样。”

Which raises the question of how she manages to be a mother to so many — as well as to two small daughters of her own. And, more to the point, isn’t she working in a way that for normal people is not sustainable? “I’m lucky my husband works around me and I get support from parents and family. I’m lucky. Other’s aren’t, but I am.”

那么问题来了,她怎么做到给这么多孩子当妈的——她自己还有俩女儿。而且,更重要的是,她的那套工作方式其他人应该做不来吧?“幸运的是我丈夫在我身边工作,父母和家人也都支持我。我很幸运。别人没我这么幸运,但我是幸运的。”

She describes a working week in which she wakes up at 6.15am, is in school an hour later, and for the next 11 hours teaches art classes, has meetings with senior staff (she is an assistant principal) and negotiates with social workers, the police and parents.

她描述了工作周她每天的日程,早上6点一刻起床,1小时后到学校,接下来上11个小时的美术课,与高级职员(她是助理校长)开会,还要跟社工、警察和家长们协商各种事情。

“I sometimes forget to go to the bathroom; that’s how busy I am,” she says.

“我有时候会忙得忘记上厕所;就是这么忙。”她说。

Back home, she watches Holby City with her daughters, after which she sends emails and plans lessons late into the evening. On Saturday mornings the family goes to the cinema, then Greek school in the afternoon followed by an extended family supper at her mother’s. On Sundays it is the Greek orthodox church (her father is a priest), and by the evening she’s working again.

回到家,她会和女儿们一起看《霍尔比市》(Holby City),之后处理邮件然后备课到深夜。周六早上,她们全家会去看电影,下午去希腊文学校,然后去她母亲家聚餐。周日去东正教会(她父亲是一名牧师),到了晚上,她又要开始工作。

It seems to me a life that is both ordinary and extraordinary. Yet the drudgery and routine seem a source of joy for Zafirakou. “I was a teacher before I was a parent; I was a teacher before I was a wife; my sister’s a teacher, my parents are teachers of sorts. It fuels me.”

在我看来,这种生活既平凡又不平凡。而对扎菲拉库来说,这种繁忙而规律的生活似乎是一种快乐之源。“为人母之前,我是一名教师;为人妻之前,我是一名教师;我姐姐是老师,我父母是某种意义上的老师。教书是我生活的动力。”

A basket of warm scones arrives; she takes one and cuts into it. “Great! It just crumbled open! Brilliant!”

一篮热乎乎的司康饼端了上来;她拿了一个,切了一刀。“太好了!一下就裂开了!好极了!”

As such a Stakhanovite herself, does she agree that teachers work too hard? And is that the main thing that puts off prospective teachers, and makes actual ones quit? “We need to value teachers more,” she says, “pay them decently; give them time to improve. We need to be like China — the only country in the world that values its teachers as much as doctors.”

作为一名斯达汉诺夫(Stakhanovite)式劳模,她是否认为当老师太辛苦?这是让准教师望而却步、并使在职教师辞职的主要原因吗?“我们需要更重视教师,”她说,“给他们体面的报酬,给他们时间去提升。我们要学学中国——全世界唯一一个像重视医生一样重视教师的国家。”

She thinks teachers should learn to blow their own horns. “We aren’t good at saying, ‘This is something great I’ve done.’ We just get on with it.” A couple of months ago, she tells me, she did something great with a year eight student. “Let’s call him Fred. He can’t write and has every special need there is. But one day Fred produced the most incredible art piece. His work didn’t have a name on so I raised it and I was like, ‘Let’s critique it, everyone.’ They’re like, ‘Miss, really good painting.’ So I go, ‘OK, whose is this work?’ Then he put his hand up.

她认为老师们应该学会“自吹自擂”。“我们不擅长说‘我做了件了不起的事’,我们只会闷头做下去。”几个月前,她对我说,她为一个八年级生做了件好事。“我们叫他弗雷德(Fred)好了。他不会写字,需要老师非常费心地照顾。但有天弗雷德画了张了不起的画。他的作品没有署名,我把它拿出来说,‘大家来评价一下它吧’。”孩子们说:“老师,画得真好。”于是我说:“那么,这是谁的作品?”然后弗雷德举起了手。

“That moment for that child has transformed everything. I’ve saved him — he now does not feel inferior to anyone else in that room.”

“那一刻完全改变了那个孩子。我拯救了他——他现在不觉得自己比班上任何人差。”

So what exactly did she do to make that happen?

那她到底做了什么实现了这一点呢?

“I make environments where it is OK to fail. I’ve had kids throw tantrums. I have got sworn at. I’ve had those moments but for me, that’s OK.”

“在我这儿,失败了也没关系。我允许孩子们发脾气。他们也冲我发过脾气。有过那种时候,但对我来说,无所谓。”

Hang on a minute. Is she advocating swearing?

等等,她是在鼓励发火吗?

“No, not at all. But if it’s a vulnerable child with a lot of issues, I would rather they let it all out with me in a safe environment than with another teacher or a student.”

“不,绝对不是。但如果一个孩子敏感脆弱,又有很多问题,我宁愿他们在一个安全的环境里冲我发泄,而不是冲另一位老师或学生去发泄。”

This is so far from the ethos at my own school I don’t know where to begin. I ask what she thinks of such schools (much favoured by the government) where kids walk around in silence. Where there is much drilling and where poor kids get great results. And where swearing at a teacher is unheard of.

这与我任教的学校的风气相去甚远,我简直不知道该从哪说起。我问她对那些孩子们安静地走来走去的学校(政府都非常喜欢)有什么看法。孩子们会在那里做大量练习,贫困的孩子会取得很好的成绩。在那里,学生冲老师发脾气是闻所未闻的事情。

“Every child is different,” she says mildly. “Some children will really benefit from the military lining up and find it comforting.”

“每个孩子都是与众不同的,”她温和地说,“一些孩子会真正受益于军事化的管理,并觉得自在。”

The response is so diplomatic I wonder if she has been media trained not to say anything that will upset any of the world’s 80m fellow teachers.

她回答得这么圆滑,我想知道她是不是受过媒体培训,不会说出任何冒犯全球8000万教师的话。

But then she goes on: “But some children won’t be able to adapt to those environments and that will cause mental health issues.”

但她接着说:“可是有些孩子无法适应那样的环境,这会导致精神健康问题。”

Which leads to the most fundamental question of all: what is education for? Is it about passing exams? Is it about knowledge, or something else altogether?

这就引出了最根本的问题:教育的目的什么?是通过考试?是学习知识,还是根本就跟这些没关系?

“Good question. In my opinion schools are there to enable students to achieve beyond their wildest dreams.”

“好问题。在我看来,学校存在的目的是让学生们能够取得超越他们最疯狂梦想的成就。”

Surely, I say, this is over-egging it. What if their wildest dreams are being Beyoncé or Messi?

这想必说得有点过吧,我说。要是他们最疯狂的梦想是成为碧昂斯(Beyoncé)或梅西(Messi)呢?

“OK,” she agrees. “Then it’s to open the doors to whatever the possibilities may be.”

“好吧,”她表示赞同,“那就是打开通往一切可能性的大门。”

I wonder where all this zeal comes from. She was brought up in north London by Greek-Cypriot parents and I suggest that the experience of coming from an immigrant family might make her better understand the kids in her school.

我想知道这些热情从何而来。她在伦敦北部长大,父母都是希腊裔塞浦路斯人,我提出,来自移民家庭的经历可能让她能够更好地理解学校的孩子们。

She dismisses this out of hand. It was the happiness of her childhood — not its difficulty — that motivates her. “I’ve been very much loved and very much cared for and because of that if I don’t see it in other people, I go, right: how can I fix this?”

她对此不以为然。是她童年的幸福——而不是艰难——激励了她。“大家都非常爱我、照顾我,正因为如此,如果我看到别人不是这样,我就会说,好:我能帮上什么忙?”

She tells me about an encounter the previous week with a 12-year-old student who arrived late, looking glum. “He goes: ‘Miss, I’ve had a bad day.’ I go: ‘Why?’ ‘Because, Miss, the landlord was meant to fix the boiler six months ago but he hasn’t, so I couldn’t have a shower and I didn’t want to upset my mum ’cause she’s just come out of hospital again. There’s damp in my mum’s room and there’s a man who said he’ll come and fix it but he’s going to charge £300. Where are we going to get £300 from?’ ”

她告诉我前几天她一个12岁的学生上课迟到了,看上去闷闷不乐。“这孩子说:‘老师,我今天很倒霉。’我问:‘为什么呢?’‘因为我家的房东6个月前就说要修锅炉,但还没修,所以我没法洗澡,我又不想惹我妈妈生气,因为她刚出院。她的房间受了潮,有人说可以修,但要收300英镑。我们从哪儿弄300英镑呢?’” 

She looks at me, eyes shining with indignation. I suggest that there’s not much she could do about this tale of woe. She disagrees.

她看着我,眼含愠色。我说这是个悲伤的故事,但她做不了什么。她不同意。

“I say to him: ‘Right, you haven’t had breakfast. Let’s go to the canteen and get the chef to make something for us.’ I tell him I skipped breakfast, too, even though I never skip meals, as you see,” she gestures towards her body. “Then I’ll check his PE kit, see if it needs a wash. Then I’ll ring Mum and ask if she’s OK, and see if she wants the school to write a letter to the landlord . . . ”

“我对他说:‘好吧,你还没吃早饭。咱们去食堂让师傅给咱们弄点吃的。’我对他说我早上也没吃东西,虽然你知道我一向按餐按顿吃饭,”她指指自己,“随后我查看了一下他的运动挎包,看看需不需要洗一下。然后我打电话给他妈妈,问她好不好,看她是否愿意让学校给房东写封信……”

Our waiter is back to describe the miniature confections in front of us. I hear the words dandelion, hibiscus mousse and lime and basil puff pastry. There is something that looks like a toy fried egg, but turns out to be white chocolate and mango jelly. Too fancy, I complain when he’s gone.

我们的侍者过来给我们介绍面前的小甜点。我听到他的嘴里蹦出了蒲公英、木槿慕斯、酸橙和罗勒泡芙这些词儿。有个东西看起来像个玩具煎蛋,实际上却是白巧克力芒果果冻。太花哨了,侍者走后我抱怨道。

“I’m loving the fanciness. And, come on, we’re paying for it.”

“我喜欢花哨。来吧,我们付了钱的。”

She whips out her phone and starts taking photos. “Wow. This is amazing. Sorry, I’m being tacky.”

她掏出手机开始拍照。“哇。这个好好看。不好意思,我太俗了。”

When she’s done, I ask about the million dollars.

等她拍完照,我问起了那笔100万美元的奖金。

“The thought of so much money is so stressful. It’s mind-blowing. I am in a position now that I’m going to change the world. I want to bring artists, designers, musicians, actors, into schools — and I’ll be using the funds to help me do that. You see, the children in my school — they don’t go out during the weekends.”

“一想到有这么多钱,我就紧张。这让人不知该怎么办才好。我现在有条件去改变世界。我想把艺术家、设计师、音乐家、演员带到学校——这笔钱会帮上忙。你看,我们学校的孩子周末都不出门。”

I interrupt to tell her one of my pupils recently mistook St Pancras station for Big Ben.

我打断她说,我一个学生最近把圣潘克拉斯火车站(St Pancras)和大本钟(Big Ben)都搞混了。

“Oh Lucy, you get it!” she says.

“噢,露西,你懂!”她说。

But wouldn’t it be nice to use the money to pay off the mortgage instead? “I have everything I need,” she says. “My family are healthy, there’s a roof over our heads. I don’t want to go out and buy an expensive handbag.”

但拿这笔钱还清房贷不好吗?“我什么都不缺,”她说,“我的家人很健康,我们有房子住。我不想出去买个昂贵的包包。”

I glance at her bag, perched on its stool. “£36 from Fiorelli,” she says.

我瞄了一眼她放在凳子上的手提包。“费莱丽(Fiorelli)的,36英镑。”她说。

Tea/lunch is nearly over, but before she goes she wishes me luck. “You’re a fierce force, you’re going to make it work. I would recruit you!”

我们的午餐(下午茶)快要结束了,临走前她祝我好运。“你很有魄力,你会成功的。我要聘你!”

As I digest this cheering news, she asks something I don’t expect:

就在我消化这个令人振奋的消息时,她问了一个我意想不到的问题:

“Do you have a husband?”

“你有丈夫吗?”

From anyone else, this’d be darn cheek, but I’m pretty sure she only asked because she was fretting about my wellbeing. It is not enough for the best teacher in the world to help all the vulnerable students at her school; a random journalist-turned-teacher is treated to her same magic combination of belief and compassion.

如果其他任何人这么问,那肯定是不礼貌的,但我敢肯定她这么问只是在关心我幸不幸福。对世界上最好的老师来说,只帮助学校里的弱势学生是不够的;她的信仰与同情心会对一个仅有一面之缘的之前当过记者、又改行当了老师的女人一视同仁。

Lucy Kellaway is an FT contributing editor and co-founder of Now Teach

露西•凯拉韦是英国《金融时报》特约编辑,Now Teach联合创始人

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