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华为

EU goes softly-softly on pushing out Huawei
欧盟公布“软性”的限制华为提案

欧盟委员会公布有关欧盟5G网络安全的提案,显然旨在限制华为参与欧盟市场,但该提案采取了不具约束力的方式。

The European Commission’s proposals released on Tuesday about security in EU 5G networks, clearly aimed at limiting Huawei’s involvement, comprised the usual attempts to exhort and co-ordinate member states rather than compel them to act with actual legislation.

欧盟委员会(European Commission)周二公布的有关欧盟5G网络安全的提案,显然旨在限制华为(Huawei)参与欧盟市场。该提案包含了通常的试图劝诫和协调成员国的内容,而不涉及强迫它们采取实际立法行动。

To a large extent this was born of necessity: national security is a competency of member states. However, the lack of centralising initiative was not for want of imagination by commission officials, who combed through existing legislation and member state decisions trying to find a way to impose a harmonised approach across the EU.

这种情况在很大程度上事出必然:维护国家安全是各欧盟成员国的职能。然而,缺乏集中动议并非因为欧盟委员会官员缺乏想象力——他们梳理了现有的立法和成员国的决定,试图找到一种方法,在整个欧盟范围内推行一种协调一致的做法。

It is a pattern repeated in a variety of policy areas associated with trade, including government procurement and the screening of foreign direct investment for threats to national security. The rise of China has created a debate about whether an EU with devolved authority can effectively engage with a highly centralised rising economic and political superpower. But shifting power to EU-wide institutions, trampling on national autonomy, is frequently a painful process.

该模式在与贸易相关的各种政策领域反复出现,其中包括政府采购和审查外国直接投资对国家安全构成的威胁。中国崛起引发了一场辩论:权力下放的欧盟,能否与一个高度集权、正在崛起的经济和政治超级大国进行有效接触。但让成员国把权力移交给欧盟机构,践踏国家自治权,往往是一个痛苦的过程。

In the case of 5G, commission officials have been concerned about the  influence of Huawei over networks in the EU, and the likelihood that some member states will give in to Chinese pressure not to exclude it. In formulating its proposal, the commission tried to cast around and find an instrument that allowed it as much influence as possible over the member states.

就5G而言,欧盟委员会官员一直担心华为对欧盟网络的影响,以及一些成员国可能会屈服于中国的压力、不把华为排除在外。在拟订提案时,欧盟委员会想方设法试图找到一种工具,使之能对成员国施加尽可能大的影响。

The commission could have tried using some tools it already has, such as its new cyber security rules that set up an EU-wide certification scheme for connected devices. It could also have attempted to use EU privacy rules under data protection legislation if Huawei was suspected of transferring data out of the EU. And the European Electronic Communications Code, the new telecoms regulation that was introduced at the end of last year, also contains security provisions.

欧盟委员会本可以尝试利用一些现有工具,比如新的网络安全规则,该规则为联网设备制定了一个全欧盟范围的认证方案。如果华为涉嫌把数据转移出欧盟,欧盟委员会本来也可以试着根据数据保护法,使用欧盟的隐私规则。去年年底出台的新电信行业法规《欧洲电子通信规范》(European Electronic Communications Code)也包含了安全条款。

In the end, rather than the strategy of making a bold bid for centralisation that it tried with its investment screening and government procurement proposals, the commission went for a minimalist approach. Underlining its lack of clout, it merely issued non-binding recommendations including member states conducting risk assessments to be combined into an EU-wide analysis that might end up providing guidance to the commission for actions at EU level down the line.

结果,欧盟委员会并没有采取曾经在投资审查和政府采购提案中所尝试的大胆争取集权的策略,而是采取了一种极简主义的做法。它只是发布了一些不具约束力的建议——其中包括成员国进行风险评估,并把结果汇入全欧盟范围的分析,最终可能为欧盟委员会在整个欧盟层面上采取行动提供指导——这突显出欧盟缺乏影响力的现状。

There is a sound political economy reason to move competencies to EU level, to enable individual member states to resist bullying. It is far easier for a small country, which might also want to do business with China in other areas, to say that it cannot accept Huawei in its 5G network because of EU regulations.

欧盟有充分的政治经济理由把各国职能提升到欧盟水平,使得单个成员国可以抵抗欺凌。对于一个可能也想在其他领域与中国做生意的小国来说,把欧盟规定作为理由来拒绝在5G网络中使用华为技术,要容易得多。

But it is all too easy for the commission to use that united-we-stand argument to cover a general power-grab, as indeed it did in the government procurement instrument it pushed forward recently. Huawei and 5G looks like a much more legitimate subject for centralisation. But it still comes up against an instinctive member state’s reluctance to have Brussels push them about. On this occasion, the commission has decided to move slowly.

而对于欧盟委员会来说,用“我们团结一致”的理由来掩护集权行为易如反掌,正如它最近在推动政府采购工具时所做的那样。华为和5G似乎是更适合集权处理的合理对象。但这仍与欧盟成员国不愿受布鲁塞尔方面摆布的本能相抵触。在这种情况下,欧盟委员会决定缓慢推进。

译者/马柯斯

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