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中美贸易战

China hits back with tariffs on $60bn of US goods
中国对600亿美元美国商品提高关税

特朗普政府对中国输美商品加征新的惩罚性关税后,北京方面发起反击,宣布对600亿美元清单美国商品中的部分,提高加征关税税率。

US equity markets reeled after China announced that it would raise tariffs on $60bn worth of US goods, hitting back after the Trump administration pushed ahead with new punitive duties on Chinese goods last week.

中国宣布将提高600亿美元美国输华商品的关税后,美国股市大幅下跌。中国此举是对特朗普政府的反击,后者上周对中国输美商品加征了新的惩罚性关税。

Beijing said on Monday that it would raise tariffs on a list of almost 2,500 goods to between 10 per cent and 25 per cent starting on June 1.

北京方面周一表示,自6月1日起将把对大约2500种商品的加征关税税率从10%提高到25%。

“China’s adjustment of tariff-adding measures is a response to US unilateralism and trade protectionism,” China’s Ministry of Finance said in a statement.

“中方调整加征关税措施,是对美方单边主义、贸易保护主义的回应,”中国财政部在一份声明中表示。

The tariff increase announced by Beijing on Monday would hit a broad range of sectors in the US, from heavy manufacturing and industry to agriculture and household goods.

北京方面周一公布的关税上调将打击美国的多个行业,从重工业和制造业,到农产品和家用产品。

The sharp escalation in the trade battle further eroded hopes of a quick resolution to US-China discussions and sent US share prices lower. The S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average were both down more than 2 per cent by mid-morning in New York, and global equities were eyeing their worst day of 2019.

贸易战的这一急剧升级,进一步削弱了各方对于美中有望很快通过磋商解决分歧的期待,导致美国股价走低。截至纽约时间上午中段,标普500指数(S&P 500)和道琼斯工业平均指数(Dow Jones Industrial Average)的当日跌幅都超过2%,全球股市可能迎来2019年最糟糕的一天。

The technology sector was particularly hard hit, with the S&P 500 sector falling 3.9 per cent in morning trading in New York. The grouping includes Apple shares, which were 5.1 per cent lower, wiping more than $40bn from its market capitalisation. Boeing dropped 3 per cent after a Chinese media report that Beijing could reduce orders from the manufacturer.

科技股受到特别沉重的打击,标普500指数中的科技股板块在纽约早盘交易时段下跌3.9%。该板块包括苹果(Apple)股票,其价格下跌5.1%,抹去逾400亿美元的市值。在中国媒体报道北京方面可能减少给波音(Boeing)的订单后,这家飞机制造商的股价下跌3%。

Soyabean futures were at their lowest point in more than 10 years in Chicago, sliding 2.1 per cent to $7.805 a bushel, while cotton — another major US agricultural export to China — fell 4.3 per cent to 65.5 cents a pound.

在芝加哥,大豆期货价格处于逾10年最低点,下跌2.1%,至每蒲式耳7.805美元,而美国对中国的另一大农业出口——棉花——下跌4.3%,至每磅65.5美分。

Treasury yields slipped as investors sought the safety of government bonds, putting the yield on benchmark 10-year US government debt at its lowest level since late March, down 4.1 basis points to 2.4139 per cent.

随着投资者寻求政府债券的安全性,国债收益率下滑,基准的10年期美国国债的收益率降至3月底以来最低位,下降4.1个基点,至2.4139%。

The rising tensions also knocked China’s currency and emerging market currencies more broadly. The renminbi was down 0.9 per cent against the US dollar on offshore markets, having crossed the Rmb6.9 level for the first time this year. The MSCI index tracking EM currencies was down 0.7 per cent, putting it on course for its biggest fall of 2019.

紧张升级也打击了人民币乃至更广泛的新兴市场货币。离岸人民币对美元汇率下跌0.9%,今年以来首次跌破1美元兑6.9元人民币水平。跟踪新兴市场货币的MSCI指数下跌0.7%,使其可能录得2019年最大单日跌幅。

For 2,493 items on Beijing’s list — the bulk of the goods hit with the measures — tariffs would be increased by 25 per cent. Those included agricultural items, such as frozen spinach and natural honey, and compounds such as potassium sulphate, commonly used in fertiliser, as well as various manufactured products such as LED lightbulbs.

北京方面清单上的2493种商品——受最新措施影响的最大部分——将被加征25%的关税。这些商品包括农产品,如冷冻菠菜和天然蜂蜜,以及通常用于肥料的硫酸钾等化合物,也有各种制成品,如LED灯泡。

On two other lists of 1,078 and 974 items, tariffs would be raised by 20 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively. Those lists included many household goods such as toothpaste and bleach along with many types of apparel and related manufacturing equipment, such as men’s swimming outfits and machinery that makes shoes.

另外两份清单(分别列出1078种和974种商品)上的商品将被分别加征20%和10%的关税。这些清单包括许多家用产品,如牙膏和消毒剂,以及许多类型的服装和相关制造设备,如男士泳装和制鞋机械。

A smaller list of 595 items would not see an increase beyond the present level of 5 per cent. Among those items were a number of chemicals and industrial materials such as formaldehyde and lithium. A range of electronic and motorised devices such as starters for the engines of cars, planes and boats, and 3D printers would also be spared an increase.

还有一份较短的清单列出595种商品,它们的加征关税税率仍将保持目前的5%。其中包括许多化学品和工业材料,如甲醛和锂。一系列电子和电动设备,如汽车、飞机和船舶发动机的起动器,以及3D打印机,也将不会被提高关税。

The response from Beijing came just three days after the Trump administration more than doubled levies on $200bn of Chinese goods to 25 per cent. The US has threatened to hit a further $300bn of Chinese imports with the 25 per cent tariff rate if there is no progress in trade negotiations.

在特朗普政府把针对2000亿美元中国输美商品的关税提高一倍以上、至25%之后,北京方面仅在三天后就作出回应。美国已威胁称,如果贸易谈判不能取得进展,将对另外3000亿美元中国输美商品加征25%的关税。

In response, China’s finance ministry said on Monday the tariff increase by the US “violates” an agreement between the two countries to resolve their trade differences through talks.

作为回应,中国财政部周一表示,美国的关税上调“违背”两国间通过磋商解决贸易分歧的共识。

“In order to defend the multilateral trading system and defend its legitimate rights and interests, China has to adjust tariffs on some imported goods originating in the United States,” it added.

“为捍卫多边贸易体制,捍卫自身合法权益,中方不得不对原产于美国的部分进口商品调整加征关税措施,”声明补充说。

The White House and US trade representative did not immediately respond to requests for comment regarding China’s retaliation.

白宫和美国贸易代表没有立即回应就中国的报复措施置评的请求。

It was not the first time that China has said it would increase tariffs on the list of US goods. Last year, while facing earlier threats from the Trump administration, China said it planned to raise tariffs on $60bn in US exports to China. Some experts expected China to push forward with the threat should it be hit with a new wave of tariffs from the US.

这不是中国第一次表示会提高针对清单上的美国商品的关税。去年,在面临特朗普政府早先的威胁时,中国就表示计划提高针对600亿美元美国对华出口的关税。一些专家此前预计,如果受到美国新一轮关税的打击,中国将兑现这一威胁。

Earlier on Monday, President Donald Trump warned Beijing not to retaliate against the rise in tariffs his administration implemented last week and said China would be “hurt very badly” if it did not agree to a trade deal.

周一早些时候,唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)总统警告北京方面不要报复其领导的行政当局上周实施的关税上调,称如果中国不同意贸易协议,它将“受到非常严重的打击”。

Kristina Hooper, chief global market strategist for Invesco, said the increasingly dovish stance central banks led by the US Federal Reserve have taken this year after the dramatic drop in US stocks in December will cushion the fall for stocks.

景顺(Invesco)首席全球市场策略师克里斯蒂娜•胡珀(Kristina Hooper)表示,在去年12月美国股市大幅下挫后,今年以来以美联储(Federal Reserve)为首的各大央行采取日益鸽派的货币政策立场,这将缓冲股市下跌。

“The two biggest risks facing markets right now are a trade war and a central banking mis-step to tighten too much. We have one of those risks out of the way, so that will limit the sell-off for stocks,” Ms Hooper said.

“市场面临的两大风险是贸易战和央行错误地收紧过度。其中一个风险已被排除,因此这将限制股市抛售,”胡珀表示。

译者/何黎

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