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中美贸易战

US increases federal aid for farmers hit by China trade war
美国加大力度救助受贸易战影响的农民

特朗普政府对受到美中贸易争端连累的美国农民加大联邦援助力度,以便争取时间,保住农村选民群体的支持。

The Trump administration has increased federal aid to US farmers hurt by its trade dispute with China, buying time with an important rural constituency as negotiations with Beijing drag on.

特朗普政府对受到美中贸易争端连累的美国农民加大联邦援助力度,在与北京方面的谈判看似没完没了之际用财政支出争取时间,保住一个重要农村选民群体的支持。

The second round of bailout payments since 2018 will cost $16bn, including $14.5bn in direct payments to producers of crops and meats including soyabeans, pork and almonds. The value was based on the maximum amount China and other trading partners could have imported over the past 10 years, officials said.

自2018年以来的第二轮救助支出将耗资160亿美元,包括直接支付给作物和肉类(包括大豆、猪肉和杏仁)生产者的145亿美元。官员们表示,这一价值是基于中国和其他贸易伙伴在过去10年本来可能达到的最大进口额。

The administration last year authorised $12bn in assistance to farmers as China, Canada, Mexico and other countries imposed retaliatory tariffs. Sonny Perdue, US agriculture secretary, previously said he did not expect another programme this year.

由于中国、加拿大、墨西哥和其他国家加征报复性关税,特朗普政府去年授权向农民提供120亿美元援助。美国农业部长桑尼•珀杜(Sonny Perdue)此前曾表示,他并不预计今年会出台另一项援助计划。

That changed in May, after the US and China clashed over how Beijing would codify any commitments into domestic law, as well as other issues, such as the scale of Chinese purchases of US goods, and measures to rein in Chinese industrial subsidies, forced technology transfers and intellectual property theft.

情况在5月发生了变化。此前美国和中国发生冲突,症结是北京方面将如何细化任何承诺、使其成为国内法律,以及其他事项,例如中国购买美国商品的规模,还有旨在遏止中国产业补贴、强制技术转让和知识产权盗窃的措施。

“When President Trump saw that the China talks had not progressed to the point of doing a deal, he called me immediately and said it looks like we’re going to have to support our farmers again,” Mr Perdue said on Thursday.

“当特朗普总统看到对华谈判尚未推进到达成协议的地步时,他立即打电话给我说,看起来我们将不得不再次支持我们的农民,”珀杜周四表示。

The direct payments under the government’s Market Facilitation Programme would be made in three tranches this summer, autumn and winter, said Robert Johansson, chief economist at the US Department of Agriculture. Unlike the first round of payments, which favoured producers of soyabeans and pork, the new programme will pay crop farmers $15 to $150 an acre based on the estimated impacts of tariffs across their county.

美国农业部(USDA)首席经济学家罗伯特•约翰逊(Robert Johansson)表示,在政府的“市场促进计划”(Market Facilitation Program)下进行的直接付款将在今年夏季、秋季和冬季分三笔支付。与支持大豆和猪肉生产者的第一轮支付不同,新计划将根据各县估计受到的关税影响,向作物农户支付每英亩15美元至150美元。

When the administration disclosed broad outlines of the new package in May, farmers were struggling to sow corn and soyabeans in fields waterlogged by pounding rain. The availability of government-backed crop insurance and a separate bill to aid farmers hit by adverse weather affected what they decided to plant, or whether to plant at all.

当特朗普政府在5月公布新救助计划的大致轮廓时,农民们正难以在被雨水淹没的田里播种玉米和大豆。政府支持的农作物保险,以及另一项旨在救助受恶劣天气影响的农民的法案是否管用,影响了他们决定种植什么作物,甚至还要不要种植任何东西。

Mr Johansson said this year’s programme was designed to not incentivise overproduction of certain crops and to be compliant with World Trade Organization rules. Farmers can start signing up on Monday.

约翰逊表示,今年的计划从设计上确保不激励某些作物的过度生产,并符合世界贸易组织(WTO)规则。农民们可从周一开始提交申请。

“We wanted to make sure to avoid distorting any planting decisions,” Mr Johansson said.

“我们希望避免扭曲任何种植决定,”约翰逊表示。

The first round of federal payments has shored up farm finances as a grain surplus weighs on prices. US stocks of soyabeans in June stood at 48.7m tonnes, 47 per cent higher than a year before. Despite scattered purchases, US soyabean export commitments to China have halved from a year ago to 14.3m tonnes in the marketing year that ends August 31. Grain futures are near the lowest level in decades.

就在谷物盈余对价格构成压力之际,第一轮联邦付款支撑了农场财务状况。6月美国大豆库存量达到4870万吨,同比增加47%。尽管有零零散散的采购,但在截至8月31日的销售年,美国大豆对华出口量减少一半,至1430万吨。谷物期货价格接近几十年来最低水平。

“While we are grateful for the continuing support for American agriculture from President Trump and Secretary Perdue, America’s farmers ultimately want trade more than aid. It is critically important to restore agricultural markets and mutually beneficial relationships with our trading partners around the world,” said Zippy Duvall, president of the American Farm Bureau Federation.

“尽管我们感激特朗普总统和珀杜部长对美国农业的持续支持,但美国农民最终还是希望进行贸易,而不是获得救助。恢复农业市场、恢复与我们在世界各地贸易伙伴的互利关系至关重要,”美国农场局联合会(AFBF)主席兹培•杜瓦尔(Zippy Duvall)表示。

The first round of direct payments was limited to $125,000 per farm operation, a cap the administration doubled to $250,000 in the new programme. Farms with adjusted gross income of more than $900,000, disqualified under the first programme, will be eligible this year if at least 75 per cent of their income derives from farming.

第一轮直接付款的上限为每个农场12.5万美元,在新计划中,特朗普政府把这个上限增加一倍,至25万美元。在第一轮计划中不具备资格的调整后总收入超过90万美元的农场,今年将具备资格——如果其收入的至少75%来自农业。

Some farm operations have structured their businesses to receive payments well in excess of the payment limits, the Financial Times has reported.

英国《金融时报》曾报道,一些农场从结构上精心安排业务,以便收到远远超过支付上限的付款。

In addition to the direct farm payments, the agriculture department plans to spend $1.4bn to purchase foodstuffs for donation to charities, expanding last year’s programme, and to provide funds to organisations that promote exports of US agricultural goods.

除了直接向农场支付外,美国农业部还计划支出14亿美元购买粮食,用于向慈善机构捐赠(扩大去年的计划),并为促进美国农产品出口的组织提供资金。

Mr Perdue said he did not expect to repeat the programme next year: “There are no plans for 2020.”

珀杜表示,他预计明年不会重复该计划:“没有针对2020年的计划。”

译者/和风

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